The water pollution today has increased to the high-level alarm proportions. This has now become the most threatening issue of environment in India and globally. The increase in water pollution every year is because of both domestic and industrial reasons. With the rapidly growing urbanization, the level of contamination has reached to the danger zone. Even after the multiple efforts by the government in towns and cities, the amount of wastewater which is treated and recycled is only 10 percent wherein the rest is still flowing directly in the rivers, oceans, ponds. This is now directly affecting the plants, animals, and humans as well. We now have to understand the need for saving water.
Let us first under the effects of water pollution on plants and animals.
The increase in the toxic substance.
Indians have always regarded the river Ganga as a sacred. Due to their beliefs, they take a holy dip in the river to purify themselves and their souls. This has also made the river Ganga polluted. It is the same belief with the rivers Yamuna, Gomati, Jhelum and many others. This has established the effects of poisoning water on plants and animals.
The Natural beauty is getting spoiled.
The water pollution is not only responsible for unfit drinkable water but is also affecting the agriculture practices. It is also accountable for spoiling and ruining the beauty of many rivers and lakes.
The growth of the Aquatic plants is getting harmed.
The water pollution is directly affecting the aquatic plants. The plethora of moss, which is in the polluted water, is not letting the sunlight reach to the depths of the rivers and the growth of the aquatic plants is getting sacrificed. In addition to this, the sewage water is also getting mixed with the rivers that cause fungus, bacteria, and algae which start to eject faster.
The suffocation of aquatic plants.
The life of the marine animals is getting miserable because of the water pollution. It reduces the oxygen level which makes the water suffocating for them. The amount of oxygen in water was around 2.5 cubic centimetre in 1950 which is now has decreased to 0.1 cubic centimetres only. The oil which contains hydrocarbons gets mixed with the water and gets spread over the surface of the ocean or river because of which the aquatic and marine animals do not get the appropriate amount of oxygen and subsequently die because of it.
Now let us discuss the effects of water pollution on human health.
The worst effect of polluted air is on human beings. According to the reports of World Health Organization (WHO), around 50 million people die every year because of contaminated water. Even in India, approximately 360 people in one lakh are dying because of the same reason, and the number of patients who are getting admitted in the hospitals is more than 50 percent. There are few other countries with an even worse situation where 80 percent of the populations are suffering from the waterborne diseases.
The unrequited amount of salt, toxins, and microbes in water causes many diseases. More than 80 percent of the people all over the world are suffering either directly or indirectly because of water pollution. As per the survey, in about 34000 villages in India, more than 2.5 billion people are suffering from cholera approximately. The absence of sewage system also causes pollution in water. Diseases like malaria, jaundice, cholera, polio, fever, viral, and more happen because of the polluted water.
The pollution in water has made a significant effect on the drinking water as well. The taste of the water has become unpalatable because of the microbes present in the water. The water has evidently become smelly as well.
It is quite noticeable that the water pollution dangerously affects all forms of life in this universe. To protect plants, animals and all human being it is essential to start thinking about the ways to save water. This is not a task for an individual but requires collective efforts of individual, government and society.